Research

UMBILICAL CORD & WHARTON’S JELLY

Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord

  • This study aimed to explore alternative sources of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as deriving cells from bone marrow is an invasive procedure.  The study sought out more accessible sources of MSC, such as from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord, which are usually discarded.  The study concluded that these alternative sources may potentially be used in place of bone marrow-derived MSCs in several therapeutic applications.
 

Immune characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and derived cartilage cells

  • This study focused on the immune characterizations of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from Wharton’s jelly found in human umbilical cords. It was found that these cells have very low immunogenicity and good potential to tolerate rejection. Their intermediate state between adult and embryonic stem cells makes them an ideal candidate for reprogramming to the pluripotent status.
 
 

A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering

  • Compared with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) have the advantages of abundant supply, painless collection, no donor site morbidity, and faster and longer self-renewal in vitro. In this 6-week study, a chondrogenic (forming cartilage from condensed mesenchyme tissue) comparison was conducted of hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for the first time.
 

Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression

  • All mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tested were phenotypically similar and of fibroblastoid morphology. Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UBC-MSCs) were more proliferative than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells(AT-MSCs).
 

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of multilineage differentiated human dental pulp- and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

  • The results demonstrate that at the biochemical and ultrastructural level, that dental pulp-derived MSCs (DPSC) display at least bilineage potential, whereas umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCSC), which are developmentally more primitive cells, show trilineage potential. It is emphasized that transmission electron microscopical analysis is useful to elucidate detailed structural information and provides indisputable evidence of differentiation. These findings highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering.
 

Endothelial differentiation of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

  • These results showed that umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) had higher endothelial differentiation potential than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Therefore, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are more favorable choice than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for neovascularization (the natural formation of new blood vessels) of engineered tissues.
 

Feasibility, Safety, and Tolerance of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Obstructive Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction

  • The results of this study suggest that it is safe and feasible to provide cell therapy with intravenous infusion of bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to lung transplant recipients with moderate obstructive CLAD, warranting future studies to assess the effectiveness of this therapy for management of acute or chronic graft dysfunction.
 

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: a new era for stem cell therapy

  • The human umbilical cord is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) have a painless collection procedure and faster self-renewal properties. This review critically evaluates their therapeutic value, challenges, and future directions for their clinical applications.
 

Comparative Characterization of Cells from the Various Compartments of the Human Umbilical Cord Shows that the Wharton’s Jelly Compartment Provides the Best Source of Clinically Utilizable Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • The human umbilical cord (UC) is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with unique advantages over other MSC sources. They have been isolated from different compartments of the UC but there has been no rigorous comparison to identify the compartment with the best clinical utility. This study compared the histology, fresh and cultured cell numbers, morphology, proliferation, viability, stemness characteristics and differentiation potential of cells from the amnion (AM), subamnion (SA), perivascular (PV), Wharton’s jelly (WJ) and mixed cord (MC) of five UCs.Taken together, it appears that MSCs from the Wharton’s jelly are more superior than those from the PV, SA, AM and MC in terms of clinical utility and research value because: (i) their isolation is simple, quick and easy to standardize, (ii) they have lesser non-stem cell contaminants (iii) they are rich in stemness characteristics, (iv) they can be generated in large numbers with minimal manipulation, (v) they are proliferative and (vi) have broad and efficient differentiation potential. They will thus be stable and attractive candidates for research and future cell-based therapies when derived, propagated and characterized correctly.

    The results of this study show that when isolating MSCs from the umbilical cord, the Wharton’s jelly should be the preferred compartment, and a standardized method of derivation must be used so as to make meaningful comparisons of data between research groups.

 

Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC

  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from birth-associated tissues, preferably parts of the placenta and the umbilical cord/Wharton’s jelly (UC- and WJ-MSC) may offer certain advantages. These include their non-invasive and ethically non-problematic availability. More importantly, MSC from these neonatal tissues possess increased proliferative (to multiply rapidly producing more tissue) capacity in vitro, in comparison to some MSC populations obtained from adult tissues.
 

The umbilical cord matrix is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood

  • According to the critical parameters of sample selection described in this study, and using different culture media proposed to enhance the growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in parallel with the use of different methods of cell isolation, the researchers were not able to establish MSC cultures from more than one out of 15 UCB samples. Given the high frequency of MSC in UCM, the study hypothesizes that there may be MSC contamination while collecting cord blood. This may explain the rare described cases where MSC isolation from UCB has been possible. However, it could not be ascertained whether the collection method may have caused the disappearance of circulating MSC from the cord blood MNC compartment in favor of the endothelial/subendothelial layer of the UCM. They conclude that UCB can be excluded as a reliable source of MSC in favor of the richer and more reproducible source that is the UCM, meaning the umbilical cord matrix (UCM) is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood (UCB).
 

Umbilical Cord Tissue Offers the Greatest Number of Harvestable Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Research and Clinical Application: A Literature Review of Different Harvest Sites

  • This study discusses how large variations in cell harvest yields remain for each major tissue site for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as reported in literature to date. Reviewed research supports the understanding that placental tissue provides the highest concentration of cells whereas adipose tissue offers the highest levels of autologous cells. Consequently, considerations must be made regarding the non-autologous nature of umbilical cord derived stem cells, as well as the increased post-harvest processing required for adipose-derived stem cells, for the purposes of research and clinical application.
 

Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • This study discusses how Wharton’s jelly is a predominantly good source of cells because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in Wharton’s jelly (WJ-MSC) are maintained in a very early embryological phase and therefore have retained some of the primitive stemness properties. WJ-MSCs can easily differentiate into a plethora of cell types leading to a variety of applications. WJ-MCSs are still the ideal future for cell therapy; their properties of high proliferation capability and versatility to differentiate between three lineages allow them to lower immunogenicity and have the potential to treat an array of diseases and disorders.
 

Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

  • The human umbilical cord is a source of MSCs that have: (i) a unique combination of prenatal and postnatalMSCs properties; (ii) no ethical problems with obtaining biomaterial; (iii) significant proliferative and differentiation potential; (iv) lack of tumorigenicity; (v) karyotype stability; (vi) high immunomodulatory activity.Currently isolated and cultured umbilical cord MSCs are a promising storage object of the leading biobanks of the world, and the number of registered clinical trials on their use is currently growing.
 
Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Undergo Malignant Transformation during Long-Term Culturing in Serum-Free Medium
  • In this study, there was no obvious chromosome elimination, displacement, or chromosomal imbalance as determined from the guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Telomerase activity was down-regulated significantly when the culture time was prolonged. Further, no tumors formed in rats injected with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) cultured in serum-free and in serum containing conditions.This study concluded that their data showed that hUC-MSCs met the International Society for Cellular Therapy sandards for conditions of long-term in vitro culturing. Since hUC-MSCs can be safely expanded in vitro and are not susceptible to malignant transformation in serum-free medium, these cells are suitable for cell therapy.
 

Comparative Analysis Of Bone Marrow and Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells

  • Taken together, Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) display decreased cellular senescence after extended in vitro culture, increased proliferative capacity and reduced potential to differentiate in vitro to adipocytes and osteocytes, as compared to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The last two observations can be explained, at least partly, by the aberrant expression of Wnt-signaling molecules in WJ-MSCs. The emerging role of Wnt-signaling pathway in WJ-MSC biology is currently under investigation.
 
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s Jelly of the umbilical cord: biological properties and emerging clinical applications
  • This study suggests there is accumulating interest in identifying alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To this end MSCs obtained from the Wharton’s Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords (UC) have gained much attention over the years since they can be easily isolated, without any ethical concerns, from a tissue which is discarded after birth. Furthermore, MSCs derived from Wharton’s Jelly represent a more primitive population than their adult counterparts, opening new perspectives for cell-based therapies.In this review, they first give an overview of the biology of MSCs derived from the umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly. They then look at these MSCs potential application for the treatment of cancer and immune mediated disorders, such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Finally, their putative role as feeder layer for ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion is pointed out.
 

Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

  • Taken together, the clinical implication of oxidative stress, telomere length, DNA damage and disease has impaired the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from aged patients. These changes in MSC biology indicate that aged patients may require an alternative source of stem cells for treatment. The high efficiency of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) recovery, the minimal ethical concerns associated with its acquirement and use, low immunogenicity, and the fact that they are from healthy, young donors make them an ideal source of MSC for autologous and allogeneic applications.
 

Wharton’s jelly as a reservoir of peptide growth factors

  • The amounts of peptide growth factors calculated per microgram of DNA are distinctly higher in Wharton’s jelly in comparison to the umbilical cord artery. Western blot analysis demonstrated that almost the entire amount of these factors is bound to high molecular weight components. Since the number of cells in Wharton’s jelly is very low and the amounts of extracellular matrix components are very high, it is concluded that the cells are strongly stimulated by peptide growth factors to produce large amounts of collagen and glycosaminoglycans.
 
 

ORTHOPEDIC CONDITIONS
& SPORTS INJURIES

Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord and for fabrication of non-scaffold tissue-engineered cartilage

  • Once cartilage is damaged, it has limited potential for self-repair. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is an effective treatment, but patients may suffer during cartilage harvesting and the donor-site morbidity may accelerate joint degeneration. Using autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived chondrocytes is another selection, while it also causes some injuring. The umbilical cord, an ecto-embryo tissue may be an ideal source of cells, because of its accessibility, abundant resources, painless procedures for harvesting, and lack of ethical issues. MSCs isolated from Wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord express characteristics of pre-chondrocytes, low immunogenicity and are easy to be obtained with higher purity because there have no hematopoietic cells in Wharton’s jelly, so it may be a new seed cells more suitable for constructing tissue-engineered cartilage.
 

Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine: Focus on articular cartilage and intervertebral disc regeneration

  • This study focuses on stem cell based therapeutics for . cartilage and intervertebral disc (IVD) repair.  It concludes that mesenchymal stem cell based therapies offer huge potential to revolutionize the treatment of cartilage defects and IVD degeneration
 

Regeneration of Full‐Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound‐Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

  • Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, they investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound‐guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full‐thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity.This study concluded that UCB‐derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB‐derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tears and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In addition, motion analysis showed better walking capacity after MSC injection than HA or normal saline injection. These results suggest that ultrasound‐guided UCB‐derived MSC injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair.
 

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce monosodium iodoacetate-induced apoptosis in cartilage

  • Based on the present findings, this study conclude that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) can fulfill mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics with mesoderm differentiation capability. HUCMSCs can assist monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-treated mice in regeneration of hyaline cartilage and/or repair of cartilage damage and in ameliorating cartilage apoptosis. These effects can be associated with motor behavioral improvement. Thus, HUCMSCs may be a feasible source for stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage repair.
 

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-induced Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenesis in an osteoarthritis model

  • This study aimed to determine the collagen type II (COL2) and SOX9 expression in interleukin growth factor (IGF-1)-induced Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) and the level of chondrogenic markers in co-culture IGF1-WJMSCs and IL1β-CHON002 as osteoarthritis (OA) cells model.The study concluded that the IGF1-induced WJMSCs were capable to enhance chondrogenesis, indicated by increased expression of SOX9 and COL2 and decreased expression of ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, MMP3, MMP1, and RANKL. These findings can be further used in the osteoarthritis treatment.
 

Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain the Expression of Key Immunomodulatory Molecules When Subjected to Osteogenic, Adipogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro: New Perspectives for Cellular Therapy

  • This study suggests that after the acquisition of a mature phenotype, Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSCs)-derived cells may maintain their immune privilege. This evidence, which deserves much work to be confirmed in vivo and in other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) populations, may provide a formal proof of the good results globally achieved with WJMSCs as cellular therapy vehicle.
 

Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscopy

  • Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. This study presents a technique of cartilage repair in the knee using Wharton’s jelly–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto scaffolding and implanted in a minimally invasive fashion using dry arthroscopy.The ability of these cells to promote chondrogenesis, without eliciting an immunogenic response, makes them an excellent candidate for providing cell-based cartilage repair in an off-the-shelf fashion. Moreover, use of Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) for cartilage repair in older patients will address concerns related to MSC number and immunomodulatory capacity with autologous harvest in aging patients, making this technique a promising advancement in the treatment of cartilage injury for this demographic.
 

Role of mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis treatment

  • Without an effective cure, Osteoarthritis (OA) remains a significant clinical burden on our elderly population. The advancement of regenerative medicine and innovative stem cell technology offers a unique opportunity to treat this disease. In this study, they examine OA and the likely resolution with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have been one of the highlights in stem cell research in recent years. Although the application of MSCs in joint repair is well established, it is particularly exciting about MSCs being used for OA treatment.
 

Mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis

  • In summary, this study shows that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be employed successfully to treat mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) through various ways. They provide alternative treatment options and treatment can start early during progression of OA. The traditional major surgeries used to treat late stages are expensive and come with risks. The less invasive techniques outlined in this review have revealed good outcomes, but the field merits further investigation. Superior outcome was evident with greater quantity of MSCs injected. Allogenic cells from healthy young donors can also be utilized. These findings have further empowered researchers to investigate the potentials of MSCs for tissue engineering and a number of clinical trials are now underway. Most of the emphasis on minimally invasive therapeutic alternatives including intraarticular injections of MSCs, aim to cut out cost and risks of major surgeries.

People with Chronic Conditions are Seeing Improvements with Regenerative Revival!

REGENERATIVE MEDICINE & STEM CELL THERAPY

Am I a good candidate for stem cell therapy?

What Are Stem Cells?

Stem cells are our body’s natural internal repair system. In short, stem cells seek out damage in the body and work to regenerate damaged tissue.

Where do the cells come from?

These human umbilical cord stem cells are collected from hospitals across the US. The mother signs a consent form. donating umbilical cord blood to the hospital after the live birth of a healthy baby. Only cord blood cells from healthy mothers and babies are accepted.

What is the average cost?

The cost of therapy can range widely depending on the individual and their specific goals and needs. While stem cell therapy is currently not covered by health insurance, the average costs are actually much more affordable than people imagine.

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